Hadith 14 from An-Nawawi
BismiLlah Al Rahman Al Rahim,
“The blood of a man who is a Muslim is not lawful (i.e. cannot be lawfully shed), save if he belongs to one of three (classes): a married man who is an adulterer; life for life (i.e. for murder); one who is a deserter of his religion, abandoning the community.”
[Al-Bukhari & Muslim]
What is the context of this hadith? Unlettered Prophet, 1400 years ago, in the desert where the Bedouins all they did was kill anybody for no reason. No rules in wars. It was barbaric. And that’s why, the Prophet (pbuh) narrowed it down to 3 reasons.
It teaches us the value of human life:
- Protect your house, revive your relationship with your wife, don’t indulge in haram
- Value life (side note by the Imam: the prison system is vicious)
- If one becomes a “murtad” (leaves Islam) AND abandons his society: it is a capital punishment, it is a dunyawi treason. It is not valid if only someone leaves Islam because “there is no compulsion in religion”: staying on the deen is an act of mercy.
We have a 14oo year old society of human rights, and you [the West] 50 or 60 years ago had different rules for skin colored people.